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Ovarian cancer is diagnosed her

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death in women, and is responsible for approximately five percent of all cancer deaths. Chances are your doctor may prescribe misdiagnosed. This is often the case. A recent British study found 60 percent of all general practitioners in the UK had misdiagnosed their patients.

Three-quarters of British doctors surveyed incorrectly assumed that symptoms occurred in the late stages of ovarian cancer. Based on this information, it is not surprising that the UK has one of the lowest survival rates for ovarian cancer in the Western world – 6,800 cases diagnosed each year, more than 4,600 die.

A similar discovery was made by University of California researchers, who announced last year, “ovarian cancer Four in 10 women have symptoms that tell your doctor at least four months -. And as one year – before be diagnosed “according to their study of nearly 2,000 women with ovarian cancer, according to medical researchers:

o First ordered abdominal or gastrointestinal implement procedures image instead of the more appropriate pelvic imaging and / or CA-125 (a blood test that can detect ovarian cancer).

o Only 25 percent of patients reported symptoms of ovarian cancer four months or more before diagnosis were given pelvic imaging or had CA-125 blood tests.

Patients with early symptoms are often misdiagnosed. Abdominal imaging or diagnostic gastrointestinal studies are less likely to detect ovarian cancer. According to the website of the American Cancer Society, “The most common symptom is back pain, followed by fatigue, bloating, constipation, abdominal pain and urinary urgency. These symptoms tend to occur very frequently and become more severe with time. the majority of women with ovarian cancer have at least two of these symptoms. “

By the time a woman reaches the fourth stage of ovarian cancer, treatment is usually first-line carboplatin, paclitaxel and cisplatin as specific chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. In the first stage, the cancer is contained in one or both ovaries. In the second stage, the cancer has spread to the fallopian tubes or other pelvic tissues such as the bladder or rectum. When the cancer has spread outside the pool area in the abdominal cavity, especially when tumor growths are larger than two centimeters from the wall of the abdomen and ovarian cancer has reached stage three. The fourth and final stage of ovarian cancer is reached when the cancer has spread to other organs such as the liver or lungs.

If detected early, survival rates can be as high as 90 percent. Detected at an advanced stage, the survival rate is between 30 and 40 percent. Several imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound can confirm whether a pelvic mass is present. Laparoscopy can help a doctor to examine the ovaries and other pelvic tissues to schedule a surgery, or to determine the stage of ovarian cancer. Biopsy or tissue sampling, are confirmed if it is cancer in the pelvic area and help determine how it progresses. A blood test typically elevated CA-125 suggests that the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage.

Approximately 50 percent of patients with ovarian cancer are in an advanced stage when a correct diagnosis. Only 10-14 percent of women with advanced cancer are likely to survive more than five years.

Evaluation of therapies

Although research shows that black baby (or green) tea or take biloba plant based supplement gingko herbs can be useful as a preventative measure or reduce the risk, a woman has few choices when her cancer has moved to a advanced stage. In the first stage, a woman faces surgical removal of the tumor, and possibly one or both ovaries, to increase their chances of survival. Furthermore, the choice is chemotherapy.

A major problem with chemotherapy are the side effects. The more advanced the cancer, the lowest such time, which reduces the chances of survival. Survival rates have not changed much in the last fifteen years. Chemotherapy may increase survival time by as much as 50 percent. But the quality of life suffers. Side effects and increased toxicity, accompanying chemotherapy, reduce how long survival time is spent.

Some minor side effects of paclitaxel, as reported by Medline Plus, can include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, changes in taste, thinned or brittle hair, pain in the joints of the arms or legs, changes in color nails, and / or tingling in the hands or feet. More serious side effects may include mouth blisters or fatigue. Some alarming side effects could include unusual bleeding or bruising, dizziness, shortness of breath, severe fatigue, chest pain or difficulty swallowing. The most common side effect of paclitaxel is a decrease of blood cells.

Carboplatin has its own list of side effects. You can reduce the production of platelets, which can interfere with the ability of blood to clot. You may suffer from anemia, tiredness or shortness of breath. Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and a general feeling of weakness are common with this chemotherapeutic agent.

The latest generation of drugs, such as Eli Lilly’s Gemzar, are hardly gets praise. On March 10, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said he was skeptical about the benefits Gemzar Eli Lilly, which has been used with carboplatin for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. FDA felt the 2.8 months increased survival, provided by the combination of Gemzar / carboplatin failed to compensate for the increased toxicity of treatment.

In January, The New England Journal of Medicine reported on a new system of special administration of chemotherapy, called “intra-abdominal or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Those who have received the” bath belly “as is now called the media can survive 16 months longer than those receiving intravenous chemotherapy. the main drawback is that 60 percent of women in the study were unable to complete six cycles of chemotherapy. those who survived longer, but only two in five women have been able to advance in the last phase of therapy.

A new approach, currently in Phase III trials in more than 60 research centers in the United States, is Ovarex ® MAb, a murine monoclonal antibody, a type of biotech drug derived from mouse cells. It is being tested by prestigious United Therapeutics, based in Silver Springs, Maryland. Its main drug Remodulin, an injection which treats pulmonary arterial hypertension, is currently marketed within and outside the United States. More than 32 million spent on research and development, and may have Ovarex available on the market before 2008.

Ovarex was developed in Canada by a company called ViRexx Medical Corp., and first tested in this country. According to Dr. Lorne Tyrrell, CEO of ViRexx “joint study was created with the FDA. This is a study in which the drug received accelerated approval and orphan drug status.” Dr. Tyrrell is on leave (up Ovarex are available in the market) as professor of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Alberta and director of the National Center of Excellence for Viral Hepatitis Research.

Ovarex was tested in Canada before the phase III trials are ongoing in the US “There have been a number of patients who received Ovarex,” said Dr. Tyrrell, “We really have no adverse effects of these patients.” Dr. Tyrrell explained the procedure, “After being injected intravenously, Ovarex joins a circulating antigen in the blood.” General use of an antibody to neutralize an antigen. OvaRex after injection, the murine monoclonal antibody binds to the antigen CA-125.

In a way the body is fooled. But the body is pushed to help “save” yourself from harmful antigens same. When OvaRex antibody binds to the CA-125 antigen, the new combination is identified as a harmful unit. Before that, the antigen wanders through the body, without alerting the body’s defense systems, dendritic cells to attack and destroy the harmful antigen. Because the body is trained to identify and zero in a foreign protein, in this case, a protein of mouse dendritic cells alert. Until then, dendritic cells “tolerate” the cancer cells. Tolerance is what allows the cancer to spread throughout the body.
Ovarex seeks to break that tolerance. The murine monoclonal antibody is designed to target and bind exclusively to free floating CA-125 antigen.

The dendritic cells refuse to tolerate the foreign protein. When the antibody binds to the floating antigen, the dendritic cells recognize the (antibody and antigen) complex as foreign and engulf the new unit. Dendritic cells key proteins of this unit are broken, presenting all parties to the cell surface. , Developed in the body’s killer T cells are alerted to fight the internal threat to the body. Once activated, the T cells grow and create more killer T cells. Tumor cells expressing the antigen CA-125 is directed to destruction. The T cells move army to attack the tumor of ovarian cancer.

The principle behind Ovarex is to reprogram the immune system to exploit the body’s defenses to prevent the growth and spread of ovarian cancer system. Will it cure ovarian cancer? “In most cases, this will be a delay,” explained Dr. Tyrrell. “But I think, and everyone expects, often in some of these tumors, a gradual advance through careful and adding new therapy clinical trials done. Everything we do, which improves results when you start to see long long-term benefits of these, hopefully someday be able to cure this disease. We believe this is a step. this has the potential to be an important help stimulate the immune system to achieve a better result response step. I hope someday we can improve what is a cure. “

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