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Infection with Ebola virus

Infection with Ebola virus (FHE) caused by the deadly Ebola virus and still mysterious became a care in the world since its discovery in 1976 Ebola outbreaks in Africa have alarmed scientists, medical experts and government and voluntary organizations so teams have been deployed to monitor and control the situation. The main concern of this paper is to present vital information to establish the fact that infection with Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected animals. Most of this article is an analysis of the nature of the Ebola virus and its transmission from animals to man contained in the first four sections. A section has also provided information on outbreaks of Ebola and where reported, in chronological order, with the CDC and WHO recent reports and fact sheets. The last two sections are designated for testing information EHF symptoms, diagnosis and laboratory. A section is also provided the latest update on infection with Ebola virus.

Ebola Virus Filoviridae is a member of a family of RNA viruses. Ebola was named after the river in the Republic of Congo, Ebola, where it was discovered. It is one of 18 known viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome (J. King). As general information, RNA viruses, such as Ebola is considered a zoonosis, which means they are of animal origin, causing damage to the microvessels leading to increased vascular permeability. Family Filoviridae is the largest genome was the order Mononegavirales. Filo (in filovirus) Latin for worm (E. Burton). Members of this family appear to be skinny and look like worms when viewed under the microscope (Oldstone 134). Other descriptions of the form include mats, snakes, as a “shepherd’s crook” and form a “U” when folded (www.geocites.com). Virions studies have revealed that the compounds of the helical nucleocapsid and have a diameter of 80 nm (CDC, 2000). Ebola virus and its co-member Mamburg have been reclassified rhabdovirus filovirus (CDC).

The Ebola virus has three subtypes: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast and Ebola-Reston, which were all named after rivers, where they were discovered (WHO, 2004). Zaire is said to be the deadliest of the four strains of Ebola virus. It was the first strain reported to have affected humans was recorded in October 1976 Ebola Zaire, which makes the rate of mortality of 80% -90% of its human victims (E. Burton). Ebola Sudan, based in Zaire is less fatal with only 50% mortality rate of 60%. Ebola Tai or Ivory Coast Ebola was discovered in 1994 was found to have infected and killed chimpanzees (L. Garette). The last subtype appears to have an Asian origin since it was identified and found lots of monkeys shipped from the Philippines (geocites.com). The laboratory experiment conducted in Reston, Virginia, revealed that this strain can be transmitted by air and has not been shown that it is not deadly to humans dangerous (Peterson, et al.).

Since the Ebola virus was discovered, scientists and health care workers infected hosts immediately isolated. The insulation is made ​​quickly in order to find a potential cure for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. When discovered in a cotton factory fist while the plant, including the droppings of bats were collected and placed in the laboratory for studies. Insects and every living things contained in the plant were also captured in the study. This step, however, was detrimental to the search for the answer to a key question: where is the “virus experts tank?

On the basis of origin of infected mammals, scientists thought might have been a resident of the tropical forests of Africa and the Western Pacific. Scientific theory was that it was non-human primates or humans that are the source of infection, as they seem to be as affected as a result of the transmission of actual deposit.

Bats, which were also captured by the cotton plant, also were found to have been infected with the virus. Laboratory tests revealed that the bats, but unlike humans and primates do not die from the infection. Studies at this point for the natural reservoir of the Ebola virus have so far been in vain. As human infection, studies have revealed that this was due to the transmission of the virus through direct contact with gorillas, chimpanzees infected monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found dead in the jungle.

Known disease caused by the Ebola virus Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), which experts say is often fatal within two victims of human and nonhuman primates according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Diseases. The World Health Organization reported a mortality rate of 50% -90% in the victims. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Sheet No. 103 issued by the World Health Organization in May 2004, the following information in relation to transmission of Ebola virus was provided:

a. The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons.
b. Direct contact with infected carcasses may also be a possible means of transmission of Ebola.
c. Treatment of infected, living and dead animals can also transmit the virus. That case was real and was actually documented in the Reston strain, where researchers who handled infected monkeys were also infected.
d. Inadequate precautions while treating infected people can also be a means of transmission of Ebola. Who said that health care workers who have direct and frequent contact with patients becoming infected themselves. Unhealthy, such as the use of unsterilized needles Hospital practices can also transmit the virus.

African derived filovirus infections were transmitted through body fluids of the host, such as blood and saliva (King, 2007). “The results of tests and studies with nonhuman primates have shown that EBO-Z (Ebola Zaire) and EBO-S (Ebola Sudan) was possibly transmitted through mucous membranes, conjunctiva, pharynx and gastrointestinal surfaces small wounds skin, and at least experimentally, by aerosol, “said the king. King also mentioned in his presentation for infected patients were found to have Ebola virus in 100% of their oral secretions. For this, the author believes that the oral fluid can also be a means of viral transmission.
Confirmed cases of Ebola HF have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast and Uganda (www.webmd.com). Ebola found to be the cause of serious epidemics of well documented human hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates of 88% in the areas of Yambuku, the Democratic Republic of Congo (King, 2007). Yambuku is a small village in northern Zaire Ebola epidemic that began in 1976 (CDC 5-8). It is located in a small town in Belgian nuns where the epidemic began recording 318 people infected (Garrett 100-105). Gabon was hit with several events between 1994 and 1996, with about 57% of the deaths, according to the CDC report. There were also cases of infection are found in Liberia, England and the Philippines, but there were no reports of deaths.

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Health, a victim of Ebola hemorrhagic fever can usually have a sore throat, muscle pain and weakness. In the early stage of the disease, the patient may experience fever and severe signs and symptoms (King, 2007) constitutional. Documented cases include symptoms such as maculopapular eruptions that are easily recognizable in white fur. At the stage of disease progression, patients infected with the experience of a sore throat pharyngitis and diarrhea also medically termed inflammation of the mucosa of the eyes called conjunctivitis, plus vomiting and abdominal pain. In later stage of disease, the hipocráticos facies (Leroy, EM, et al.) Occur. Due to the inability of the blood clotting, internal bleeding occurs. Started bleeding from the injection, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, skin and internal organs. Myocarditis and pulmonary edema were also observed at later stages of the disease (Department of Health of Pennsylvania).

Because some of the symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever are similar to symptoms of other diseases such as malaria and typhoid, medical experts agree that the diagnosis of EHF is a bit difficult. For this reason, experts need to perform various laboratory tests for a person suspected of having infected by the EHF to ensure results. These lab tests include examination of blood and stool smears. The most complete evidence is as follows:

a. ELISA assay (assay of enzyme-linked immunosorbent antigen capture), a serological test is performed after a few days of the onset of symptoms. Tests were also performed followed using immunoglobulin M capture ELISA, which is Z-EBO viral antigens. These antigens are taken from cells infected Vero E6 (A. Takada, 1988). Also the fact that ELISA is G (IgG) Immunoglobulin, extracted using detergent Ebola antigens. PCR reaction (Polymerase Chain) and virus isolation are done in diseased patients. Previous tests, according to the CDC, however considered high-risk procedures and are only in high containment laboratories.
b. Indirect fluorescent antibody test – this test is most commonly performed in patients lacking specificity EHF. Therefore, other tests, such as ELISA assays were developed accordingly.
c. Electron microscopy – the aim of this test is to identify mainly filovirus patient tissues. However, the limitations of the results of this test method has been revised when human outbreaks in other areas.
d. Immunohistochemical test – this is a more specific test method used by medical experts for diagnosis and surveillance. This test is performed on the skin of sick patients after formalin was applied.

EHF was one of the greatest fear of man, especially in Africa, where it is produced more initial outbreaks. However, recent reports have said EHF is not only harmful and deadly to humans but also to primates, especially gorillas. In the press release of National Geographic News December 7, 2006, the virus was “walking regularly throughout West and Central Africa, killing more than 90 percent of gorillas in its path and threatening the species with extinction” (K. Ravilious). The report prepared by a team of researchers and scientists to monitor the spread of the Ebola virus on great ape populations, the team estimated that there were about 5,000 gorillas died from the virus since 1995 Lossi Sanctuary alone (Science Daily). What remains hidden for scientists is the natural reservoir of the Ebola virus, although it has been hypothesized that aims to fruit bats, which were also tested for infection, but it did not die.

Research on the possible cure for EHF is an ongoing effort. In 2003, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published official reports of his human trial of the vaccine to prevent infection with the Ebola virus. The report said the experimental vaccine, a type called a DNA vaccine, “is similar to other promising for the control of diseases such as AIDS, influenza, malaria and hepatitis vaccine candidates” (NIAID, 2003). The experiment was conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, about 27 volunteers, 18 to 44 years old. Volunteers injected with the test vaccine three times in two months should not be exposed to the Ebola virus.

Before testing the NIAID, a group of scientists from Emory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease vaccine (CDC) found valuable information on the lethal effects of Ebola virus (H. Korschun). Scientists said that “a strain of mouse-adapted strain of human Ebola induces an immune response strong T cell” (Emory Report, April 23, 2001). This conclusion is contrary to the previous assumption that infected patients die due to Ebola virus caused suppression of the immune system. The conclusion of the researchers was that the deadly Ebola virus has undergone a rapid response in mice, even in the presence of T cells, the immune response of the infected host can not cope with the deadly virus.

Use vital information from the CDC and WHO reports and fact sheets, we were able to analyze the nature of the Ebola virus that kills, how animals are transmitted and man how is replicated and consequently damage the system infected patients . Getting information on outbreaks of Ebola, from its discovery to the last reported case, we may have the idea that the Ebola virus is unlike malaria and typhoid fever, but similar symptoms patients feel. The uniqueness of the virus resides in the fact that not only humans are infected, but also to non-human primates like monkeys and gorillas. Although the natural reservoir of the virus remains unknown, experiences and Ebola vaccine trials offer hope for the world, especially in Africa has been hit hard. Research and experiments continue and the world with the hope of finding positive results in the near future.

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