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Analysis and preventing the spread of HIV Epidemiological (HIV)

Outlook virus (HIV)

In the decade since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered, the epidemic continues to grow each year. According to the Global Health Council (2006) for the year 2005, the number of infected people has risen to more than 40 million, double the number in 1995. In late 2005, 40.3 million people were living with world of HIV / AIDS wide, including 17.5 million women and 2.3 million children under 15. No prevention efforts, 35% of children born to HIV-positive mothers are infected with HIV .

At least a quarter of newborns infected with HIV die before one year and up to 60% die before their second birthday. Worldwide, only one in ten people infected with HIV has been tested and knows his / her HIV status (Global Health Council, 2006).
As HIV / AIDS in the United States grew, strategies that are associated with the prevention, treatment and monitoring of disease are important in controlling the spread of the epidemic. Epidemiology plays an important role in decision-making strategies by controlling the data that can give an overview of the rates of HIV infection in various segments of the population.

Epidemiological data used is crucial in controlling the decrease in the overall incidence of HIV, the substantial increase in survival after AIDS diagnosis and disparities among populations of racial / ethnic minorities. In this work the role and use of epidemiological data on the evolution of HIV, the definition and refinement of a disease control programs will be discussed.

Management of HIV disease

According to Wright (2005), the number of Americans living with HIV who are over 45 years has increased by 60 percent between 1999and 2002. The aging of the epidemic is a sign of success: “We have learned to keep people living with HIV as individuals. aging with HIV, treatment for the virus begin to collide with a treatment for a number of other health problems that afflict the elderly.

There are about 20 antiretroviral drugs available in the United States to halt the loss of natural defenses of HIV infection. What is worrying for people living with HIV / AIDS is the protease inhibitors are associated with diabetes, heart disease, liver and kidney problems (Wright, 2005). Epidemiological analyzes data / hospital can be used to identify these disorders in the population that are the result of HIV / AIDS. The use of epidemiological data can lead to more effective planning for people to be carried out by using antiretroviral drugs prolonging care.

Surveillance of HIV / AIDS

According Fos and Fine (2005) most organizations have health care sites monitoring programs that have the responsibility to monitor key indicators such as infection rates. The purpose of surveillance is to target are common and preventable infections, and generate high costs of treatment or serious effects on morbidity or mortality (Fos and Fine, 2005 p.167). Organizations seeking to prevent HIV infection should use HIV surveillance to provide accurate and timely data that is relevant to the spectrum of the demographic, economic, cultural and social disease progression of HIV / AIDS.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) indicates that the HIV epidemic has continued to grow in the United States; at the end of 2003, approximately 1,039,000 to -1,185,000 people in the United States living with HIV / AIDS, it is estimated that 24% – 27% were unaware of their infection. In the United States there are about 252.000 to -312.000 people are unaware that they are infected with HIV and, therefore, are not aware of their risk of HIV transmission. The analysis of data collected by the National Surveillance System Behavior HIV, which identifies high-risk populations for HIV to assess the prevalence and trends in risk behavior, HIV testing, and use of prevention, revealed that the population at risk surveyed in five cities in the United States, 25% were infected with HIV and people, 48% were unaware of their infection (Center for Disease Control and Disease Prevention 2006). These results highlight the need to increase efforts detection and prevention of HIV among high-risk populations.

With a hospital or health center community-based primary prevention setting is vital in efforts to stop the spread of HIV / AIDS. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Diseases indicates the first studies of screening board and notice a significant reduction in risk in people who learned they were HIV positive. Customer orientation change of Ministry, which highlighted the increased risk perception of the customer and develop a plan to reduce personal risk significantly increased condom use and decreased new sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in HIV negative patients clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (Center for Disease Control and disease Prevention 2006).

Since HIV / AIDS was recognized, there was geographic clustering of cases of AIDS in the United States. Morse, Lessner, Medvesky, Glebatis and Novick (1991) suggest that the group is linked to groups of infected activities HIV risk behavior and occur more often in metropolitan areas and states with large populations at risk individuals. Identification of spatial clusters of cases may be useful to focus prevention efforts and distribution of health resources (Morse et al., 1991).

Epidemiological investigations

Surveys often provide reliable data in depth on the basis of specific groups of the population. According to Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean (2005) Epidemiological surveys can be cohort, case-control, longitudinal or cross-sectional studies. These studies are not considered part of public health surveillance, but routine health care policymakers to help identify populations at higher risk of HIV infection (Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean, 2005). The unique feature of an epidemiological investigation is collecting data comes directly from individuals. This information can be compared with other epidemiological data such demographic or geographic indicators provide a descriptive evaluation of morbidity and risk in the community. The inclusion of multiple data sources using epidemiological information allows planners in hospitals to know the strengths and limitations of the services provided.

The prevention planning

Fos and Fine (2005) suggest rational efforts to prevent disease and disability are firmly rooted in clinical epidemiology. In fact, preventive practices not supported by epidemiological clinical evidence can be dangerous or expensive, or both. Epidemiology is fundamental to our understanding of the prevalence of any disease and its natural history (Fos and Fine, 2005, p. 244). The prevention and treatment of HIV / AIDS for a long period of time can be problematic in a time of limited health resources. According to Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean (2005) effective planning of HIV prevention should be a process based on evidence.

The profiles and evaluations of epidemiological community services are the main sources of such evidence. In the past, epidemiological profiles highlighted surveillance data on HIV / AIDS due to its universal availability and high quality. An ideal intergraded epidemiologic profile describes the effect of the HIV / AIDS in social demographic terms, geographic, behavioral and clinical decision makers to make informed decisions (Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean, 2005) features. Epidemiological data can help in the decision making process in a hospital or in developing a complete picture of the HIV / AIDS in the community with a community-based health.

Data describing the demographics of the general population may provide a basis for comparing the level of education, poverty, and insurance coverage of people infected with HIV. Epidemiological data may also identify populations that require their risk behavior and prevalence of information about HIV / AIDS. Community organizations can use epidemiological data to identify racial / ethnic groups are at risk and to determine appropriate actions. The use of epidemiological data in a health care facility provides those responsible for health care decisions to identify populations that receive primary health care services.

conclusion

HIV prevention and care involves planning between ministries of health and communities affected by HIV. The inclusion of multiple data sources in the process of decision making allows policy makers to optimize the strength and foundation of the conclusion presented in the analyzes / epidemiological data. Surveillance data on HIV / AIDS, as well as demographic and social, geographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics should be included in the process of painting a three-dimensional image of the decisions of HIV / AIDS.

Epidemiological data improve disease management by describing more socialdemographic the characteristics of people with HIV and comorbidities, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and other sexually transmitted diseases. The application of epidemiological / analysis data must constantly be developed and used to bring health care to more effective prevention and care planning for people with HIV. Fos and Fine (2005) suggest epidemiological data can help care decisions health policy to identify, evaluate and select alternatives. Epidemiology can help authorities determine the criteria on which the solution in an epidemic will be the most efficient use of health resources (Fos and Fine, 2005). A decision maker healthcare can use epidemiological data to prioritize and target prevention and care services for specific subpopulations. Data on the morbidity of STIs, HIV and tuberculosis co-morbidity, mortality data, seroprevalence studies may provide a more complete picture of the HIV epidemic.

At present, little is known about the long term effects of anti-HIV drugs currently on the market. Even more alarming is that the real risk behaviors have on HIV transmission. In the future, hospitals and establishing health care community based someday could use epidemiological data to answer some of these questions in research to prevent and treat HIV / AIDS.

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